Download Linux Operating System Latest Version (2020)
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Download Linux Operating System Latest Version (2020): An operating system is the soul of a computer. It acts as an interface between the hardware components of the computer and the user while ensuring the smooth functioning of the computer. By establishing a link between the various input and output devices and the central processing unit, the operating system plays a pivotal role in the functioning of a computer system. In this article, we are going to discuss one such operating system that has been extremely popular for over two decades. Operating systems are very essential and hence expensive but that is not the case with this one, it is free. Without adding any more suspense, let’s just tell you the name of this very popular operating system. It is Linux.
What is Linux OS?
Linux is a free open-source operating system developed by Linus Torvalds. It is a UNIX based operating system and inspired by the pre-existing Minix which was also a UNIX based operating system. An open-source operating system means that it is open to suggestions and improvements from the users. Programmers and developers can submit their algorithms and programs to improve the functioning of the operating system. In fact, anyone can contribute to making the operating system better and more efficient. This operating system is written in C which is one of the most popular programming languages in the world and this makes it easier for users to work upon the betterment of the operating system. It was initially designed for personal computers but its great security features led to it being adopted by big servers and mainframe computers. It is now used all over the world in big corporations to run big ironed systems and supercomputers. Linux is also an integral part of smartphones, home appliances, and even cars. It is one of the most dependable, secure, and efficient operating systems in the world.
Difference between Linux and Other Operating Systems?
The major difference between and other popular operating systems like Windows and MAC is that it is an open-source operating system. This allows Linux to constantly improve and become better and better. It is also free and hence can be easily used by anyone and everyone. Linux is also a multilingual software. It is not just limited to computers and can be used on any kind of electronic device. Since it is written in C and based on UNIX, it is easier to edit and modify. Having a Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows Linux to compete with some of the best operating systems in the world. In fact, it is better than big names in a lot of ways. It is lightweight, faster, and also more secure. Due to this reason, big corporations choose Linux to run their servers and mainframe supercomputers.
What is the structure of Linux?
Linux falls under the category of Layered Architecture operating system. It is divided into 5 layers. Let us now look at these layers in detail.
1. Kernel – The Kernel is the core of the Linux operating system. It is responsible for important operations. It interacts directly with the hardware. Kernel prevents the system or low-level application programs from getting access to low-level hardware details due to the presence of the requisite abstraction.
2. System Libraries – System libraries are special functions that allow other applications and functions to access the Kernel’s features. They act as a channel or path through which the applications to use the hardware resources of the computer via the kernel.
3. Shell – The shell is the interface between the user and the kernel. It acts as a barrier that hides the complex working of the kernel from the users. It takes the input from the user, sends it for processing to the kernel, and sends the output back to the user.
Shell is an important component that is present in a lot of different operating systems. There are two major types of shells –
(i) Command-Line Shell and
(ii) Graphical Shell.
The difference between the two is the type of interface. As the name suggests, Command-Line Shell has a command-line interface while the other has a graphical user interface. Out of the two, the graphical shell is a little slower. Shells can also be classified as: –
- Korn shell
- C shell
- Bourne shell
- POSIX shell
4. Hardware Layer – This is the innermost layer that consists of all the hardware components of the computer like the processor, the RAM, the Hard Disk, etc.
5. Users – The outermost layer is that of the users. These are individuals using the operating system to interact with the computer and its applications.
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Basic Features of Linux Operating System
Linux operating system is a fast, free, and extremely popular operating system that is used on a plethora of devices all around the world. It is its features that make Linux operating system so popular. Let us now look at some of these features.
- Graphical User Interface (GUI) – Linux is based on UNIX which is a command-line OS. However, Linux has a graphical user interface just like other popular operating systems like Windows. This makes it easy to use and a feasible free alternative to Windows.
- Live CD/USB – Linux operating systems are available on Live CDs or USBs. This allows you to use the operating system even without installing it on your computer. It is like a trial version for users.
- Application Support – Linux can support a lot of different applications. It has its own library of useful applications that can be downloaded and used by the users. If needed, Linux is also capable to run Windows applications.
- Support for Customized Keyboard – Linux provides support for most custom national keyboards. As mentioned earlier it is multilingual and hence provides support for a lot of different types of keyboard.
- Portability – This is another interesting feature of Linux that makes it so popular. Portability means that the Linux operating system can run on different types of hardware.
Characteristics of Linus Operating System
1. Open Source – As mentioned earlier Linux is an open-source Operating system. This means that users can easily access the source code of Linux and work on it to improve the operating system. It is open to developers adding their contribution to build a better and more efficient operating system. Teamwork and collaboration really make Linux a wonderful dynamic operating system that is constantly evolving.
2. Multiuser Capability – Linux is a multiuser capable operating system. This means that the hardware resources like CPU, RAM, and Hard Disk can be accessed by multiple users at the same time. They are given different terminals from where they can carry out their separate operations. These terminals consist of basic input and output devices like monitor, mouse, keyboard, etc. The terminals are connected to the main server which runs the Linux operating system. The main server contains the hardware resources (CPU, RAM, and Hard Disk) and the peripherals are a part of the terminals provided to the users.
3. Multitasking – Linux is a smart operating system that is capable of multitasking. Multitasking is the ability of the operating system to handle multiple operations and actions at the same time. It can automatically divide its resources between the various operations that are taking place at the same time. This is done by means of scheduling processes and context switching.
4. Security – Linux receives a lot of attention and appreciation for being an extremely secure operating system. The security features of Linux are what make it so special. Linux operates on several security measures that make your data and system safe from malware and unauthorized access. Some of the security features of Linux are: –
- Authentication – Linux enables you to password protect your system. This prevents any kind of unauthorized access. Only people with the correct login credentials can access your computer and the files on it.
- Encryption – Linux uses encryption to convert your files into an unreadable format called ‘ciphertext’. This safeguards your files from accessed and tampered with.
- Authorization – Linux allows you to set authorization levels for each file. You can choose to allow reading, editing, or executing certain files and functions. People without proper authorization would not be able to cause any kind of unwanted action on your files.
- Communication – Linux allows you to easily communicate with other Linux users. These other users can be a part of the same network or some other network. You can easily exchange mail, data, or some program through the networks.
What is a Linux Distribution?
Since Linux is an open-source operating system, a lot of developers have taken the code, made modifications, and released a new version of the operating system. Although they are mostly the same, every version has some special features in them. These versions are known as a Distribution. There are hundreds of distributions available in the market. In this section, we are going to go through some of the most popular distributions of Linux.
- Ubuntu – This is one of the most popular operating systems running on Linux. It is widely used by home users and individuals. It the third most popular operating system after Windows and MAC.
- Debian – Debian is another popular Linux distribution that is designed for home users. It is a non-commercial and stable Linux distribution.
- Arch – This distribution is popular amongst developers and programmers. It is best suited for people who prefer to do things on their own.
- CentOS – This is mostly used for the purpose of web development and enterprises. It is free and exceptionally useful. It heavily depends on Red Hat distribution.
- RedHat Enterprise – This is another popular enterprise-class Linux operating system. It is a commercial operating system and is well received by its users.
- Gentoo – It is more suitable for advanced Linux users as you need to configure the code on your system before using it. Gentoo is a source-based distribution.
- Fedora – Fedora is another Linux based operating system and it is supported by the Fedora Project. It is mainly meant for home users.
- Slackware – This distribution is one of the oldest and has kept most of the basic structural code of Unix intact. This too is meant for desktop users.
How to Download and Install Linux Operating System?
As mentioned earlier, in order to download and use the Linux Operating System, you have download one of the many Linux Distributions. In this section, we are going to tell you how to download Ubuntu, one of the most widely used and popular Linux based operating system. Use the link given below to download the ISO file for Ubuntu
Once the download is complete you can install Ubuntu in a couple of ways.
Method 1: Using a Bootable USB.
Step 1: In order to create a bootable USB, you need to use third-party software like Universal USB Installer. Click here to download the software.
Step 2: Install Ubuntu on the bootable USB drive. The software that you downloaded will guide you step by step to do that.
Method 2: Using a Bootable CD/DVD
This is an even simpler method. All that you need to do is burn the ISO files on the CD/DVD. After that simply boot the computer from the CD/DVD drive.
Method 3: Installing Linux on a Virtual Machine
Using a Virtual machine allows you to run multiple operating systems on the same computer. It is a smart choice if you wish to try Linux and not affect your existing operating system. For this, you need to download Virtual machine software like Virtual Box. Click here to download Virtual Box.
Once the download is complete install Virtual Box on your computer. To do this simply run the setup file and follow the steps. You will need to allocate a drive or directory where the Virtual machine will be installed.
Once the installation of Virtual Box is complete, you need to download Ubuntu. Click here to download the operating system for the virtual machine.
Now you need to create a new machine on the Virtual box and set its name (Ubuntu), Operating system type (Linux), and version (32-bit or 64-bit). Now you have to allocate other resources like RAM and then create a virtual hard disk. Remember to allocate at least 8 GB of space and set the memory settings to dynamic to allow the hard disk space to increase as and when required.
Now run the virtual machine and browse to the directory containing the ISO files for Ubuntu and mount it. After that start with the installation process. Simply follow the instructions of the installer and your virtual machine with Ubuntu will be ready in no time.
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